Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy governed under the constitution of 1962. It has a bicameral Parliament made up of a 21-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. The prime minister is the head of government. The head of state is the British monarch, as represented by the governor-general. The country has two main political parties: the Jamaica Labor party (JLP) generally favors private enterprise, while the People’s National party (PNP) advocates a moderate socialism. Since Jamaica gained independence in August 1962 they have nine Prime Ministers including the current Prime Minister Andrew.
In 1972, Michael Manley won the election for two times as the fourth prime minister and he introduced Socialism to Jamaica. The 1980 election also witnessed violence but this time Manley lost against Edward Seaga (the fifth prime minister) from Jamaica Labour Party.
In 1992 Percival James Patterson became the first black Prime Minister of Jamaica. Patterson won the 1993, 1997 and 2002 elections. Portia Lucretia Simpson-Miller, who was the first female Prime Minister of Jamaica from March 2006 to September 2007 and again from 5 January 2012 to 3 March 2016. She is the leader of the People’s National Party. On 25 February 2016, the People’s National Party lost the general election to the Andrew Holness-led Jamaica Labour Party.